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Straw silage

 

Forage silage corn generally refers to the use fresh corn stover as feed corn, can be grown several times a year. Which is characterized by rapid growth in a short time you can get more leaf production. Corn silage in the flowering stage, the aerial parts of corn harvested, chopped and stored in silage harm or silage tower, you can do a long time with cows. Cattle feed. In production, the requirements of silage corn stalks, leaves, spike high yield, lodging resistance, high nutritional value, easy to digest and utilize. Corn silage forage in the cultivation of corn silage than technically demanding, in variety matching tall plants generally require the use of high yield, lodging resistance of late-maturing varieties. In the sowing, the harvest has to be considered good climatic conditions, in order to facilitate silage. Corn silage is necessary to increase planting density, but also to prevent lodging, lodging because not only reduces yield, but not for mechanical harvesting. Determination of harvest, the highest yield per unit area to obtain the best benefit of keeping the principle. Silage techniques to master, silo site to choose the terrain is dry, heavy clay soil, groundwater low places. Silage harm must be sealed airtight, smooth vertical wall cellar, so easy after storage of silage compaction decline. Seepage pit wall is not, otherwise it would silage spoilage. Must make silage sealed storage, so as to take advantage of anaerobic fermentation of lactic acid bacteria produce lactic acid, so that cavities acidity increase, reaching around 4.0 PH value, so that other microbes stop breeding. Meanwhile, the lactic acid bacteria itself will cause massive accumulation of lactic acid, the acidity caused by the rising and gradually cease their activities, so that the long-term preservation of silage without deterioration. Furthermore, after malolactic fermentation feed, but also improve the nutritional value and is of high quality cattle feed.

(A) economic value

Forage silage corn cows, beef cattle to provide green fodder, the cattle industry is the indispensable basis for one feed. Beef industry in recent years has been greatly developed, to provide a large number of domestic and foreign markets beef, many places became famous cattle County. Milk industry is recognized saving food, economic and efficient industry, is a "vegetable basket project." Milk or feed conversion yield the highest rates of nutrients than food production can be increased by 2 to 3 times of nutrients yields were much less in the current national conditions, the development of the dairy industry to promote forage silage corn, is having a far-reaching career. 80 years ago our country does not forage maize varieties, mostly with the production of varieties of grain forage production, and thus low yields, poor quality. Until 1985 was the first time validation of our breeding "Beijing more No. 1" of new varieties of forage maize, and then in 1989 another validation of the "Credo No. 4" and a number of new varieties. Such forage silage maize production has been significantly improved, forage breeding of new varieties of corn silage is also a good start. In Europe, North America and other countries, people attach great importance to the production of forage maize silage, forage silage maize area accounted for a large proportion, but they make more use of big spike, a single stalk, holding greenness strong varieties, bred so much more than stalk Ear forage silage maize varieties are our specialty.

(Two) growth characteristics

First, higher biomass

Currently part of the promotion of the production of forage maize varieties, fresh biomass yield of up to 4000 kg / mu ~ 7000 kg / acre, compared with normal corn 1000 kg / mu to 3000 kg / mu.

Second, good quality forage

Forage silage corn varieties, with high holding green, leafy area, straw lignin content is low, palatability, and other characteristics.

Third, the rapid growth

Compared with ordinary corn, forage maize varieties generally have a higher growth potential.

  青饲青贮玉米一般是指用鲜嫩的玉米茎叶做饲料的玉米,一年可以种植多次。其特点是生长迅速,在短时间内可以获得较多的茎叶产量。青贮玉米是在乳熟后期,将玉米的地上部分收割、切碎并贮藏于青贮害或青贮塔中,可以长时间?#31859;?#22902;牛。肉牛饲料。在生产上,要求青贮玉米的茎、叶、穗产量高,抗倒伏,营养价值高,并易于消化利用。青贮玉米在栽培技术上比青饲青贮玉米要求高,在品种选配上一般要求采用植株高大产量高、抗倒抗病的晚熟品种。在播种期上,要考虑收割时具有好的气候条件,以利于青贮。青贮玉米既要增加种植密度,又要防止倒伏,因为倒伏不仅降低产量,而且无法进行机械收割。收获期的确定,要以单位面积产量最高、获得的饲养效益最佳为原则。青贮的技术要掌握好,青贮窖址要选在地势干燥、土?#25910;?#37325;、地下水位低的地方。青贮害要密封不透气,窖的内壁平滑垂直,这样便于贮后青贮饲料的压实下降。窖壁不能渗水,否则会使青贮饲料腐败变质。一定要使青贮饲料密封贮藏,这样才能利用乳酸菌的厌氧发酵,产生乳酸,使窖内酸度增加,达到PH值4.0左右,从而使其他微生物停止繁殖。同时,乳酸菌本身?#19981;?#22240;乳酸的大量积累,而造成酸度不断上升并逐?#37237;?#27490;活动,从而使青贮饲料可以长期保存而不会变质。再者,经过乳酸发酵的饲料,还提高了营养价值,是养牛的优质饲料。

   (一)经济价值

   青饲青贮玉米为奶牛、肉牛提供青饲料,是养牛业不可缺少的基础饲料之一。最近几年肉牛业有了很大的发展,向国内外市场提供了大量的牛肉,很多地方成了有名的养牛县。牛奶业是公认的节粮、经济、高效的产业,属“菜篮子工程”。牛奶还是饲料转化率最高的营养物质产量,比生产粮食能增加2倍~3倍的营养物质产量,在目前人多地少的国情下,发展奶牛业,推广青饲青贮玉米,是一件具有深远意义的事业。80年代前我国没有青饲型玉米品种,生产上大都用粮食品种生产青饲,因而产量低,质量差。直到1985年我国才首次审定了我们选育的“京多1号”青饲型玉米新品种,接着在1989年又审定了“科多4号”等一批新品种。这样青饲青贮玉米的生产有了明显的改观,青饲青贮玉米的新品种选育也有了良好开端。在?#20998;蕖?#21271;美等国家,人们很重视青饲青贮玉米的生产,青饲青贮玉米面积占很大比例,但他们多利用大穗、单秆、持绿度强的品种,因此选育多秆多穗青饲青贮玉米品种是我国的特色。

   (二)生育特点

   一、生物产量高

   目前生产中推广的部分青饲玉米品种,鲜生物产量可达4000公斤/亩~7000 公斤/亩,较普通玉米高1000公斤/亩~3000公斤/亩。

   二、饲用?#20998;?#22909;

   青饲青贮玉米品种,具有持绿度高,绿叶面积大,秸秆木质素含量低,适口性强等特点。

   三、生长迅速

与普通玉米相比,青饲玉米品种一般都具有较高的生长势。

 

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